NZ’s debt-to-GDP of around 20% appears conservative relative to some of the international post-GFC debt balances. In addition to trade, there is a high level of corporate and individual investment between the two countries and the US is a major source of tourists coming to New Zealand. Foreign Control Key Facts Updated", New Zealand property bubble, 1987–present, Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership, Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Economy_of_New_Zealand&oldid=1021916293, World Trade Organization member economies, Short description is different from Wikidata, Use New Zealand English from January 2013, All Wikipedia articles written in New Zealand English, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from February 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from October 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from June 2018, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the World Factbook, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Dairy products, meat, logs and wood products, fruit, machinery and equipment, wine, fish and seafood. This requires electricity to be transmitted north through a power grid which is reaching its capacity more often. Refrigeration transformed and shaped the development of the economy but, in the process, established New Zealand's economic dependence on Britain. The average income of the poorest tenth increased by 13% from $9700 to $11,000. [65] In that year the Labour Government of Helen Clark introduced the New Zealand Superannuation Fund (known as the "Cullen Fund" after Minister of Finance Michael Cullen) to part-fund the superannuation scheme into the future. This has had a dramatic effect on home ownership rates by Kiwis, now at its lowest level since 1951. We have detected you are in Australia, would you like to go to our New Zealand website or proceed to the Australian website? [92] Many government departments were corporatised, and from 1 April 1987 became State owned enterprises, required to make a profit. The low numbers correlated with a robust economy and a large backlog of job positions at all levels. [48] Between 2012 and April 2016, the average Auckland home increased in price by just over two-thirds reaching $931,000 – higher than the cost of an average home in Sydney. The 83% share of renewable energy sources[82] makes New Zealand one of the most sustainable economies in terms of energy generation. The Pacific region with numerous islands is New Zealand's sixth largest trading market and is growing every year. Australia is New Zealand's largest bilateral trading partner. The latest comprehensive information for - New Zealand Government Debt to GDP - including latest news, historical data table, charts and more. The forecast 2019/20 New Zealand Government Bond programme is unchanged, at NZ$10 billion, from that published at the Budget Economic and Fiscal Update 2019 . [88] In a process often referred to in New Zealand as Rogernomics, successive governments introduced policies which dramatically liberalised the economy. The main purpose of KiwiSaver is for retirement savings, but younger participants can also use it to save a deposit for their first home. In 1992, Japans's Nikkei (stock market) crashed. [84] For example, from 1920 to the late 1930s, the dairy export quota was usually around 35% of New Zealand's total exports, and in some years made up almost 45%. [69] Of this, 506 km is electrified.[71]. New Zealand has also had persistent current account deficits since the early 1970s, peaking at −7.8% of GDP in 2006 but falling to −2.6% of GDP in FY 2014. Present-day telecommunications in New Zealand include telephony, radio, television, and internet usage. Tight monetary policy and major efforts to reduce the government budget deficit brought the inflation rate down from an annual rate of more than 18% in 1987. [139] In December however Bloxham stated that he thought the New Zealand economy would continue to grow strongly. Maintaining financial discipline is particularly important for a small economy like NZ. He viewed New Zealand as a "Britain of the South Seas"[94] and began the development of infrastructure in New Zealand investing heavily in roads, railways, telegraphs and bridges funded by public borrowing. He claims that for twenty years outrage "has been muted", but "Alarm bells are finally beginning to sound. This trend continued until September 2012, reaching a high of 6.7%. Morningstar, Inc. All rights Reserved. A competitive telecommunications market has seen mobile prices drop to some of the lowest in the OECD. Between 1984 and 1993, New Zealand changed from a somewhat closed and centrally controlled economy to one of the most open economies in the OECD. The world's already huge debt load smashed the record for the highest debt-to-GDP ratio before 2019 was even over. New Zealand External Debt: % of Nominal GDP data is updated yearly, available from Dec 1993 to Dec 2020. Awarded to Milford Asset Management for Fund Manager of the Year KiwiSaver Category NZ, Site Map | Terms & Conditions | Privacy Policy | Getting Advice at Milford. [156] However trade with the European Union is declining as demand from Asia continues to grow. [29] There has been an investment income imbalance or net outflow for debt-servicing of external loans. [147] In 2013, trade between New Zealand and China was worth NZ$16.8 billion. Richardson's first budget in 1991, nicknamed the 'Mother of all Budgets',[115] attempted to address constant fiscal deficits and borrowing by cutting state spending. However, too much debt can weigh on economic growth – attracting a higher interest burden (at the expense of more productive spending) and less financial flexibility, constraining government spending. Holyoake's deputy and successor, Jack Marshall, (briefly Prime Minister in 1972) negotiated continued access for New Zealand exports to the United Kingdom under the so-called "Luxembourg Agreement". The percentage of the population employed also increased in recent years, to 68.8% of all inhabitants, with full-time jobs increasing slightly, and part-time occupations decreasing in turn. National taxes are levied on personal and business income, and on the supply of goods and services (GST). The importance of maintaining financial flexibility can be seen from Ireland’s experience through the GFC. Amongst the Budget Responsibility Rules which the government agreed after the 2017 election, the government is required to reduce the level of net core Crown debt to 20% of GDP within five years of taking office (fiscal year ended June 2022). Statistics on external debt. Trade agreements establish rules by which trade can take place and ensure regulators and officials in countries New Zealand is trading with work closely together.[149]. The United States Chamber of Commerce is active in New Zealand, with a main office in Auckland and a branch committee in Wellington. Even as recently as 1991, 76% of New Zealand homes were occupied by their owners. Compare Debt Between Countries . This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Japan is New Zealand's fourth largest trading partner. [125] Through 2011, global conditions deteriorated and the terms of trade eased off their 2011 peak, continuing to moderate until September 2012. [54] According to a submission made to the Housing Affordability Inquiry,[55] escalating house prices are also impacting on many middle income groups, especially those with large families. [79] New Zealand will be potentially among the main winners after the global transition to renewable energy is completed; the country is placed very high – no. Wellington’s contribution remained at 12.9 percent and Canterbury’s dropped slightly to 12.4 percent. Speculators expected the change of government to result in a 20% devaluation of the New Zealand dollar, which led to the 1984 New Zealand constitutional crisis due to Muldoon's refusal to devalue, worsening the currency crisis further. In the 1870s, Julius Vogel was periodically both colonial treasurer and premier. [112] The unemployment rate rose from 3.6% to 11%,[113] New Zealand's credit rating dropped twice, and foreign debt quadrupled. As a result, inflation rates fell to an average of 2.5% in the 1990s, compared to 12% in the 1970s. This gave the country the 5th-best ranking in the OECD (with an OECD average at the time of 5.5%). Prior to joining Milford Ian worked at ANZ Bank New Zealand, most recently in the Specialised Finance team originating, structuring and executing leveraged transactions. Mining, manufacturing, electricity, gas, water, and waste services accounted for 16.5% of GDP as of 2013[update]. [83] New Zealand suffers from a geographical imbalance between electricity production and consumption. These reforms became known as "Rogernomics", named after minister of finance from 1984 to 1988, Roger Douglas. Apr 14, 2021. Britain applied to join the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1961, but was vetoed by the French. Large scale industrial plants were established based on New Zealand's abundant natural gas. Based on the IMF’s definitions, NZ’s general gross government debt for 2018 was 29% of GDP. Almost half of that increase went to a small group who were already the richest in the country. Since 1990, CER has created a single market of more than 25 million people. News & Views. Chorus wholesales services to retail providers (such as Spark). We thought it would be interesting to see how this range compares internationally and some of the key considerations when thinking about the appropriate level of government debt. New Zealand Government Debt to GDP History. [129] The largest of these was South Canterbury Finance which cost taxpayers NZ$1.58 billion when the company collapsed in August 2010. [153] A number of US companies have subsidiary branches in New Zealand. The dairy farming can therefore be seen as a response to the powerful market demands in Europe, transforming not only New Zealand's countryside, economy and production techniques, but also causing migration in order to create the needed supply of dairy farming. Government books continue to improve, assets up and debt down [86] This enabled New Zealand to start exporting meat and other frozen products to the United Kingdom. [125], Around the world instability was developing in the finance sector. [84] Wool became the first staple export, initially exported from the Wellington settlement in the late 1850s, although unrefrigerated meat and dairy products were exported as far as Australia.[84]. China’s national debt is currently 54.44% of its GDP, a significant increase from 2014 when the national debt was at 41.54% of China’s GDP. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in New Zealand was worth 206.93 billion US dollars in 2019, according to official data from the World Bank and projections from Trading Economics. Having a secure market with guaranteed prices also enabled New Zealand to impose high tariffs on imported goods from other countries. What is important is the sustainability of debt (currently supported by a low interest rate environment). [112] Between 1986 and 1993, the unemployment rate rose from 3.6% to 11%. New Zealand's diverse economy has a sizable service sector, accounting for 63% of all GDP activity as of 2013[update]. This statistic shows the national debt of New Zealand from 2015 to 2019 in relation to gross domestic product (GDP), with projections up until 2025. [105], The Tiwai Point Aluminium Smelter, which opened in 1971, was also upgraded as part of the Think Big strategy and now brings in approximately NZ$1 billion in exports every year. A detailed list of historic and forecast debt-to-GDP ratios for most countries can be found on the IMF’s database here. By the mid-20th century, pastoral-farming products made up more than 90% of New Zealand's exports,[96] 65% of which was going to Britain in the 1950s. We are sorry but registration to access your client login is currently unavailable due to maintenance. Imports from the US include specialised machinery, pharmaceutical products, oil and fuel. The world’s largest economy, the United States isn’t far behind at 106%, with China at 51% and other major economies such as the UK and Germany at 87% and 60% respectively. A growing number of New Zealand companies use the United Kingdom as a base to supply their products to the European market. We are currently experiencing high call and email volumes which means there may be a delay in our responding to your query. [137] Only three months later, the New Zealand Productivity Commission expressed concern about low living standards and problems affecting the long-term drivers of growth. In 2011 exports to Pacific Islands were worth over $1.5 billion up 12% on the previous year. [37], New Zealand was ranked 1st on the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) of 2017 with a score of 89 out of 100. Australia is now the destination of 19% of New Zealand's exports, including light crude oil, gold, wine, cheese and timber, as well as a wide range of manufactured items. HSBC chief economist for Australia and New Zealand, Paul Bloxham, was so impressed that he predicted New Zealand's growth would outpace most of its peers, and he described New Zealand as the "rock star economy of 2014". ... % of GDP 2019 New Zealand % of GDP: Exports % of GDP 2000-2019 New Zealand (red) Exports % of GDP 2020: Find all indicators … Those on low incomes are hardest hit, affecting many Maori and Pacific Islanders. New Zealand External Debt accounted for 89.9 % of the country's Nominal GDP in 2020, compared with the ratio of 89.9 % in the previous year. We are working hard to make it available as soon as possible. [125] In 2009 the economy picked up, led by strong demand from major trading partners Australia and China, and historically high prices for New Zealand's dairy and log exports. Recent polling shows three-quarters of New Zealanders think theirs is no longer an egalitarian country".[141]. Business and consumer confidence in New Zealand plummeted as dozens of finance companies collapsed. Wriggle room “Within five years of taking office” implies the net debt forecasts will land at or below 20 per cent of GDP … These are collected by a range of government agencies such as the New Zealand Customs Service. New Zealand Debt to GDP Ratio - Historical Data; Year Government Debt as % of GDP Annual Change; 2016: 42.34%-1.09%: 2015: 43.43%-0.80%: 2014: 44.23%-2.31%: 2013: 46.54%-5.27%: 2012: 51.82%: 3.46%: 2011: 48.36%: 13.47%: 2010: 34.89%: 2.94%: 2009: 31.95%-4.10%: 2008: 36.05%-0.89%: 2007: 36.94%-5.99%: 2006: 42.93%-1.24%: 2005: 44.17%: 0.30%: 2004: 43.87%-4.38%: 2003: 48.25%: 15.47%: … [63] In 2011 there were twice as many children in New Zealand as elderly (65 and over); by 2051 there are projected to be 60% more elderly than children. [69] Air New Zealand, 52% government-owned,[72] is the national carrier and a state owned enterprise. The country has one of the most globalised economies and depends greatly on international trade – mainly with Australia, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States. The electricity market is regulated by the Electricity Industry Participation Code administered by the Electricity Authority (EA). Household debt: 125.7 % of disposable income. As of February 2014[update], NZX had a total of 258 listed securities with a combined market capitalisation of NZD $94.1 billion. High commodity prices are expected to provide a considerable boost to nominal GDP growth in the near term. [150], In July 2014, negotiations on the Partnership Agreement on Relations and Cooperation (PARC) between New Zealand and the European Union were concluded. Get the latest local and international market insights, news and investment information direct to your inbox each week. Milford Website. This data on the chart includes mortgages that New Zealand households have on rental properties, whereas the household debt published in the Household balance sheet (C22) data table does not include mortgages on rental properties. In 2010 the GDP grew by a modest 1.6%, but over the next couple of years economic activity continued to improve, driven by the rebuild in Canterbury after the Christchurch earthquakes and recovery in domestic demand. New Zealand Government Debt to GDP was 27 % in 2021. He is the Co-Portfolio Manager of the Trans-Tasman Bond Fund & the Global Corporate Bond Funds. New Zealand has a large GDP for its population of 5 million, and sources of revenue are spread throughout the large island nation. There is also 83,000 km of local roads built and maintained by local authorities. Awarded to Milford Asset Management for New Zealand Fund Manager of the Year. These were replaced by a comprehensive tax on goods and services (GST) initially set at 10%, then increased to 12.5% and recently increased to 15% in 2011. [120], Deregulation also created a business-friendly regulatory framework which has benefited those able to take advantage of it. In 1984, private and public foreign debt was $16 billion ($50 billion in March 2013 dollars) which was less than half New Zealand's Gross Domestic Product at the time. The amount of Superannuation paid depends on the person's household situation. When disasters occur, they often have severe social and economic effects which last for years. [61] Highlighting the disparity, the top 1% of the population now owns 16% of the country's wealth – the richest 5% owns 38%[62] – while half the population, including beneficiaries and pensioners, earn less than $24,000.[59]. Household debt. Find statistics on the gross domestic product (GDP), NZ's official measure of economic growth. [125] However, in early 2008 the economy entered recession, before the effects of the global financial crisis (GFC) set in later that year. [74] The majority of connections are digital subscriber line over phone lines. [104], Following the 1979 energy crisis resulting from the Iranian Revolution of that year, Robert Muldoon, the prime minister between 1975 and 1984, instituted an economic strategy known as Think Big. The New Zealand economy had been on a solid footing, with annual real production GDP growth averaging 3.2% over the five years to December 2019. New Zealand's 1983 Closer Economic Relations agreement with Australia means that the economy aligns closely with that of Australia. [154] This common background has not translated into a free trade agreement between the two countries.[155]. Before the debt-to-GDP figure is released later this month the treasury will release fiscal data for all of 2019. By 2013, this was down to 63%, indicating that more and more people are having to rent. Government subsidies including agricultural subsidies were eliminated; import regulations were loosened up; the exchange rate was floated; and controls on interest rates, wages, and prices were removed; and personal rates of taxation were reduced. They must also have lived in New Zealand for at least 10 years since they turned 20 with five of those years being since they turned 50. [78] A contributing factor is the growth of relatively less energy-intensive service industries. [163] In March 2013 the financial sector, which includes the four big Australian owned banks, was worth $39.3 billion accounting for the largest portion of the $101.4 billion foreign ownership of New Zealand companies. The average for the EU is 82%, which compares to the EU’s Stability and Growth Pact requiring debt-to-GDP below 60% – or at least declining to be within acceptable limits. [151] The increase was facilitated by the New Zealand–China Free Trade Agreement which came into force on 1 October 2008. The Labour Party was greatly divided over Rogernomics, especially following the 1987 sharemarket crash and its effect on the economy, which slumped along with the rest of the world into recession in the early 1990s. New Zealand income levels, which used to be above those of many other countries in Western Europe prior to the crisis of the 1970s, have dropped in relative terms and never recovered. Russia is the … There is no consensus as to what the appropriate ratio is. Apologies for the inconvenience and thank you for your patience. General government debt-to-GDP ratio measures the gross debt of the general government as a percentage of GDP. It does not take into account your investment needs or personal circumstances. [44] The Asian financial crisis of 1997 set unemployment upwards again, by 28%. Since then, commodity prices have rebounded strongly, with strong demand from China and the international situation improving. 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For many years New Zealand's economy was built on a narrow range of agricultural products, such as wool, meat and dairy. On 17 September 2020, New Zealand officially entered a recession, with the country's gross domestic product retracting by 12.2% in the June quarter. The United States is New Zealand's third largest trading partner. Vehicles and aircraft, machinery and equipment, petroleum, NZ$156.181 billion (53% of GDP) (December 2018), Officially the Republic of China, participates as ", This page was last edited on 7 May 2021, at 11:32. The allocation of $550 million represents about 0.26% of New Zealand's gross national income (GNI).[161]. [28] However, the outlook includes some challenges. Time spent overseas in certain countries and for certain reasons may be counted for New Zealand Superannuation. [110][111], Inflation continued to be a major problem afflicting the New Zealand economy. This prosperity continued up to 1955 at which point Britain stopped giving New Zealand guaranteed prices for its exports. [85] Britain applied again to join the EEC in 1967, and entered into negotiations for membership in 1970. [96] As more land was cultivated and farmed, Britain became the sole market for New Zealand meat and animal products. 2019 New Zealand (red), DAC Countries (black) Grants by private agencies and NGOs Indicator: 120.8 Total Million US dollars 2019 New Zealand Million US dollars: Total Million US dollars 1999-2019 New Zealand (red), DAC Countries (black) Net ODA Indicator: 0.3 ODA grant equivalent % of gross national income 2020 New Zealand % of gross national income [50] This makes Auckland New Zealand's least affordable market and one of the most expensive cities in the world[51] with houses costing 8 times the average income. Since 1992, New Zealand has co-operated with Australia and France to respond to disasters in the Pacific. [162] Between 1989 and 2007, foreign ownership of the New Zealand sharemarket went from 19% to 41% but has since dropped back to 33%. In March 2012, the United States had a total of $44 billion invested in New Zealand. [147] This has occurred primarily because of soaring demand for imported dairy products, following the Chinese milk scandal in 2008. [64], This poses a significant problem for superannuation. 11 December 2019 Review of NZ Half-Year Economic and Fiscal Update, December 2019. It … [30] Between 1984 and 2006, net external foreign debt increased 11-fold, to NZ$182 billion. New Zealand has a universal superannuation scheme. New Zealand household debt to GDP ratio is updated quarterly, available from Dec 1990 to Dec 2020. [112] In 1989 the Reserve Bank Act 1989 was passed, creating strict monetary policy under the sole control of the Reserve Bank Governor. 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